Diet in renal failure
The basic principles of nutrition in renal failure
Products of nitrogen metabolism, appearing in the assimilation of protein foods that are toxic to the body. Because of their elimination to answer the kidneys, the doctors recommend to reduce protein intake. In the first stage of kidney damage, the rate is determined at the rate of 1 g of protein per 1 kg of ideal body weight of the patient, in the second stage of chronic kidney disease, the rate is reduced to 0.8 g per 1 kg of body weight, the third to 0.6 g per 1 kg. As a marked reduction in the rate of consumption of protein may lead to depletion of the body, patients are recommended to take extra ketoacids or amino acids.
Excessive consumption of salt leads to water retention and promotes edema. The maximum intake of salt — 3-3,5 g per day (need to add salt ready meals). In renal failure slows down the "recycling" of phosphates, which leads to the active excretion of calcium from the bones and development of osteoporosis. It makes reduce the rate of consumption of phosphorus up to 0.8-1 g per day. In this pathology may develop life-threatening condition hyperkalemia. To prevent such problems, doctors recommend to reduce the normal consumption of potassium 2-4 grams per day.
intake of water is restricted due to the fact that the affected kidney is not able to withdraw fluid in sufficient quantity – it leads to the development of hypertension and edema. In the first stage of development of the problem the total amount of liquid should not exceed 2 liters in the disease progression rate of fluid is calculated, considering the amount derived per day of urine (for this indicator, need to add 400 ml). If it is difficult to withstand thirst, you can freeze some of the water and dissolve the ice.
the Main sources of energy should be carbohydrates and fats (preference for fats of plant origin). Some starchy foods are prohibited due to the high content of potassium (bananas, dried fruit, potatoes). Also, the exception shall be subject to:
• Refractory fat
• Baking soda and salt
• Spicy, fatty, salty cheeses
• Smoked meats, pickles, marinades, canned food
• Spinach, radish, sorrel, radishes, mushrooms
• Soups, cooked in milk
• First dishes and sauces for meat, mushroom, fish broth
• Pastries, chocolate, cream, coffee, cocoa, ice cream
• Carbonated beverages
• hot spices (horseradish, pepper, mustard, etc.)
the basis of the diet:
• Salt-free bread biscuits
• Milk – 200 ml per day
• Yogurt – 200 ml per day
• Eggs – no more than 1 piece a day
• cottage Cheese – about 100 grams per day
• cream and sour Cream (filling food)
• Fish or meat boiled about 50 grams per day
• Unsalted butter
• Oatmeal in the water
• Soups based on grains, vegetables, fruits
• Milk gravy (limited)
• Vegetable and fruit sauces
• Cinnamon, vanilla (to improve the taste of food)
• Vegetables (raw or heat treated)
• Parsley and dill
• Sugar, jam, honey (limited)
• Weak tea, still water, natural juices, herbal teas and infusions
patients need to Eat 5-6 times a day. Products can be boiled, simmer or bake (without the formation of coarse crust). You can drink one hour before meals or one hour after it.
Diet in kidney failure is based on severe restriction of protein and liquid – to keep it easy. Experience shows that the appetite during illness considerably deteriorates, to prevent exhaustion, you need to be creative when cooking.